Congratulations on having found the Seafriends web site! This page will help you to get the most out of your visit, so take the time to read it. Did you know that the entire web site plus a very large video slide show are available on CD? See below.
The structure of this site has been kept simple, without unnecessary graphics, bullets, frames, side bars and so on. We do not want to waste your time, and besides, all pages should be printable so that you can hand them out and share them with others.
Think of this site as a tree, with the home page as its main trunk. From there spring subsidiary branches, branchlets and ultimately leaves. Of each section we inform you of its size and state of completion, before you need to click your way into it. Each chapter is large, covering several pages of print, complete with many photographs and drawings, that load as you are reading the introduction.
Tip: watch the right-hand side bar on each window, because most pages (documents) are many screenloads long. Slide the slider bar down to view more, or use the arrow keys on your keyboard, or page up or page down, home and end keys. The size of the slider gives you an idea of the length of the document. If it is small, the document is long.index pages
Tip: be familiar with the go back function of your browser. It can be accessed by clicking the back buttonor by right-clicking and selecting the go back option. In this way you navigate back up the tree to the superior sections where you came from. it makes navigating clean and easy.
Tip: did you know that you can enlarge the size of the text or make it smaller? Type CTRL and + to enlarge text and CTRL and - to make it smaller.
Tip: for a complete overview of the many subjects and sections of this web site, use the site map, accessible from the front page. Where the site map becomes too detailed, it refers further to subsidiary site maps, such as the various classifications of marine organisms, but for now, it is complete.
Tip: If you wish to save connection time, open each subsidiary section in its own page (or tab), by right-clicking on the link and selecting open in new window (or new tab). After a while, you will have amassed a large number of pages on your task bar, loaded into the computer's cached files on disk, ready for reading. Disconnect the connection and read them.
Example: Suppose you entered the Seafriends web site from asking Google about marine conservation and the URL reads: http://www.seafriends.org.nz/issues/cons/marine.htm. By trimming marine.htm off, to read http://www.seafriends.org.nz/issues/cons/ you will enter the conservation directory, and likewise by trimming /cons/ off, you will enter the issues directory. In the end http://www.seafriends.org.nz/ will bring you to the root directory or Seafriends home page, from which all pages follow.
The pages on this web site have been formatted with a view towards printing efficiently. They are best viewed with a screen size of 800x600 pixels. When your screen is larger, say 1000x800 pixels, you may notice images sometimes overlapping other images or tables. This is fixed easily by 'normalising' the browser's window and adjusting its width to about 800 pixels. Click on the middle button in the top right corner of the browser window. This reduces its size. Now drag the bottom-right corner to give it a convenient aspect, such that the text is easy to read, while images and tables appear normal.
A site search engine has been provided to enable you to help you search for a particular topic. This facility is now also provided on the front page. However, this search engine does not work on the Seafriends CDs.
Enter the keywords of the subject you are looking for, and press RETURN or click on the submit button. A page with search results appears. The top of each page shows the page heading. Clicking on this heading leads you to the beginning of the page. However, clicking on the keywords that follow, lead you closer to the result.
Click here to read more about how to use the search engine.
The edit/find option in the toolbar above allows you to find words in the page. A shortcut key is CTRL/F. To find the next occurrence, press FK3. In modern browsers like Mozilla, you can just type letters on the page. Thus by typing Moz, you will arrive at this line and FK3 finds you the next occurrence.
This web site has taken great care in locating the information such that it prints economically on paper, using the available paper and ink as sparingly as possible. In this manner you can share the information with others who are not connected to Internet.
Tip: don't start printing before all images have been loaded. This shows with the message Document: done in the status bar at the bottom of the screen. To make sure all images have been loaded, scroll through the whole page to verify this. Although the print option should load all images independently, it has come to our attention that this is not always the case. Furthermore, some Internet Explorer (IE) versions exhibited problems in loading large pages with many images. Should images not show on your printout, click the View/reload (View/refresh for IE) option, or ultimately, use a Netscape browser.In some sections, a faint background pattern is shown. It consists of a small image which is tiled over and over again, thus taking little time to load. But it may interfere with the printed output. Should you find this annoying (and wasting precious printer ink), make sure that background printing is turned off.
Tip: before printing, click file/printer setup, and set your top and bottom margins to 1-2cm (0.4-0.8 inch), and left and right margins to 1cm (0.4 inch). By doing so, images can print side by side, which creates a neat layout. It saves much paper too. At this point, also decide what you wish printed at the top and bottom of the sheet. Page numbers and page title are preferable. Deselect the printing of the background.
Tip: many printers use too much ink to render photographs on normal printer paper (copy paper). The ink may run and the images look too dark. Adjust the settings in your printer setup to reduce the amount of ink used and save these settings. You may also slide the darkness/brightness slider to brighter. This also extends the life of your ink cartridges considerably.
Tip: in Internet Explorer, click Tools/Internet Options, then the Advanced tab and scroll down to printing and deselect the box print background images and colours.In the entire web site, only two fonts are used: the variable font and the Arial font, which is also known as Swiss or Helvetica. The Arial font is used to make tables and inset boxes more compact, and to make them stand out. It cannot be altered. The variable font as you are reading here, can be altered. It is usually printed as Times-Roman, the kind of font used in newspapers. This font is compact, well balanced, and easily readable in poor light conditions. Should you prefer a different font for printing, you can instruct your browser to substitute this variable font for some other font, like Goudy. But make sure the font is capable of bolding and italicising, since these are used throughout the web site. This is how you set the variable font:
Tip: In Netscape Navigator, select Edit/preferences, then Appearance/fonts, then select in the Variable Font box the font of your liking. You can do it now. Check if bold and italics work. In order to revert back, select the Times New Roman font again. You can speed the search by entering the letter . in the font box.Note! Unfortunately both Internet Explorer and later versions of Netscape and Mozilla, do not print the pages correctly as they allow images and tables to be broken across page boundaries. Only the older version 4.7 of Netscape Communicator works well and you can download it from Internet by searching for the installation file cc32e47.exe (20MB). This bug has now been reported to the Mozilla development team (April 2005). If you have the Seafriends CD, you can install it from D:\scrntx03\cc32e47.exe (no virus). Google for 'cc32e47.exe'.
In Internet Explorer, click Tools/Internet options, select the General tab and click the Fonts button. In the Web Page Font box, select the font of your liking. Try it now, and see if bold and italics work.
Tip: did you know that you can enlarge the size of the text or make it smaller? Type CTRL and + to enlarge text and CTRL and - to make it smaller.
obtaining high resolution images
For the sake of fast loading, and for lowering web site maintenance costs, the images on this site are a compromise between legibility and size. Usually 300 x 200 pixels, but sometimes 450 x 300, they are of low resolution. Every care has been taken to render these images as crisp and legible as is possible. However, should you wish to obtain high resolution versions, please notify us by e-mail. For commercial use, and for government institutions, there is a corresponding cost (NZ$ 150-320, but prices may change), but for educational purposes, we attempt to give them free of charge, except where printing runs are involved. Remember though, that this web site is funded entirely privately, and that donations and contributions are more than welcome.
High resolution images can also be obtained of every photo and diagram
on this web site (with very few exceptions).
It is the great merit of Internet publishing that it is affordable, and that images in vivid colour do not appreciably add to cost. It is also of unfathomable advantage that the information can be kept uptodate, and need not turn obsolete. For this reason alone, changes and additions to this site are made regularly, particularly in the months May to November, when New Zealand is in winter sleep, and the physical activities at the Seafriends Marine Conservation and Education Centre slow down.
Consult the What's New main section of the web site, and that of each major subsidiary section. Each page also has a revision status, with the most recent dates of updating (see the last line on this page).
feedback to the author
This web site has been written entirely by Dr Floor Anthoni, in consultation with a wide range of publications. My aim is to produce a learning place, so compact and efficient, and easy to read, that you will be able to learn in a matter of days what took me many years to attain. Although every effort has been made to represent the truth, errors will undoubtedly have crept in, and these are entirely mine. It is the nature of this multiple faceted and mulitple disciplined work, that peer review is almost impossible without running into high costs and time delays. You, the reader, are therefore invited to contribute in the form of constructive feedback, or even by providing new information and things I may have overlooked. E-mail: Dr Floor Anthoni.
While studying the pages on the Seafriends web site, you may wish to keep a number of reference documents handy as printed copies.
Since all physical units have been standardised according to the International Standard of units (SI system), also known as the 'metric' system, it is convenient to have a print-out of the table of units and conversons at hand. It also contains may formulas and conversion factors.
Chemistry is an important knowledge in environmental matters, and reference is frequently made to the natural elements and chemical formulas. It would help to have a print-out handy of the Periodic Table of Elements, which also contains a primer on basic chemistry.
Although all strange words have been explained somewhere in the text, it is convenient to have a printout of the Environmental Glossary at hand. You can also open it in a new window, for quick access to the meaning of unfamiliar words. This glossary is worth reading in its entirety for the amount of information it contains.
A separate geological glossary
covers the geological and soil terminology, and an extensive summary
of rock and soil types, soil biomes and soil chemistry is part of the extensive
section on soil.
the Seafriends CD
At the beginning of 2004, the entire Seafriends web site became available on CD. Now the 2006 edition is available for NZ$30 plus $5 for mailing overseas (US$25 for CD incl p&p). To obtain your own copy, e-mail to the Seafriends e-mail address and pay by cheque or bank draft or pay with your credit card through PayPal, by clicking on the purchase button below. You can now access over 2700 printed pages and 5000 drawings and photographs almost instantaneously, as well as 5 slide shows with over 2000 screen-sized images. You can copy the information to your hard drive for even more convenient access. But remember that Seafriends very much needs your support, so donate generously. We keep adding to this web site, so update your own treasure regularly. Do not copy the Seafriends CD but make your contribution help us.
The CD is like having a whole educational encyclopedia of New Zealand's
seas right on your own computer. Open the home page
(assuming that D: is your CD drive) with your
internet browser (Internet Explorer or Netscape). You can also copy the
whole CD to a folder like C:\seafriends\.
To start browsing on your hard drive, open the home page C:\seafriends\index.htm.
Mark this homepage as a bookmark or favourite.
But there is more . . . a number of slide show with over 2000 images of our aquatic world. Read more below.
Order your CD now
This CD is written in standard ISO CD format using the international Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and is therefore compatible with all past and present computers, operating systems and internet browsers. This CD does not always start by itself, nor does it install itself on your computer or copy files to your hard drive. It is therefore also completely safe and has been certified virus-free. You must open the home page D:index.htm, 0r D:autorun.htm assuming D: is your CD drive. How this is done depends on your situation.
For example, in Windows XP the web site starts automatically with the autorun page (autorun.htm). In all other cases proceed as normal: click the Start key, then Run and enter d:index.htm or d:autorun.htm, then click OK. Bookmark the home page for further access.
Please note that the search engine does not work on the CD version. Use the web site www.seafriends.org.nz should you wish to search by keyword.
To enjoy the slide shows, click on tips on the home page and follow the instructions.
The Seafriends CD contains thousands of large colourful images of our seas, each complete with a small description. Unlike those on our web site which have been sized to 300x200 pixels for optimal Internet response, the images on CD are fully 800x600 pixels to fill an entire computer screen. They aim to show what our seas look like, an incredible kaleidoscope of habitats and creatures representing the whole of the New Zealand underwater world and further away.
It is the culmination of many years of underwater photography devoted to illustrate the glory of this cryptic inheritance. But the work is never finished. Each year many more photographs are added to this collection while good photos of rare organisms are attained only gradually. So get the most recent version of the Seafriends CD in order to remain uptodate - a collectors' item indeed.
With Windows' Explore program, open the
D:\scrntx03\ (where D:
is your CD drive). It contains a readme.txt
file, a copy of which is shown in the box below. Here are all the instructions
to activate your own slide show. It is also necessary to set your screen
for reproducing colour photographs faithfully (sRGB
colour profile), which is different from that for colour video.
A free slide show program
GPhotoShow is included
for people with windows versions Win98 or earlier, but it also works on
most recent Windows versions. To install it, doubleclick on D:\scrntx03\gPhotoShow.exe
(virus-free). The following slide shows are now available:
|Description of slide shows||Folders||Images||Indexes||html show|
|2004 CD slide show NZ images with text||D:\scrntx03\||700||Index1 Index2||scntx03.htm|
|Impressions from Niue Island above & under water||D:\niuetx04\||334||Index||niuetx04.htm|
|2005 CD slide show NZ images with text||D:\scrntx04\||572||Index1 Index2||scrntx04.htm|
|Impressions of Niue Island above and under water||D:\niuetx05\||339||Index||niuetx05.htm|
|2006 CD slideshow NZ images with text||D:\scrntx05\||217||Index||scrntx05.htm|
The quickest way to access these slideshows is by going to the autorun
page which starts when the Seafriends CD is loaded. From here you can
also play slideshows in your browser but with Window's Explore
you can select and copy all favourite images to your own screensaver in
a folder like C:\scrnsvr\.
You can copy these images to a folder on your disk (say, C:\scrnsvr\ ) or leave them to run from CD.
Windows Millennium edition (and later ones) has an in-built slide show. To activate it, do as follows:
right-click on the desktop and select properties.
After installation, the screensaver can also be found in Start/programs/gPhotoShow/ . This version starts immediately, without waiting.
For best viewing, you may need to pay some attention to your screen's settings (Windows 98 or more recent). When images look rather contrasting, their highlights bleaching, Select the sRGB colour profile as follows:
Right-click on your desktop and select properties.The effect of these settings are that the images look quite real, and like they were intended.
Enjoy the show.
Of course, you can use your knowledge to make a screensaver slideshow of your own pictures.
You may notice that your
screensaver cuts out before finishing. This is most likely due to the energy
saving settings of your computer's screen and disk. Here is how you adjust
The screensaver may show
a fuzzy image before the sharp image if it also displays the very small
thumbnails (f012345t.jpg) contained in the \tn\ subfolder. To avoid
this, unclick the recursive option or copy all large pictures (f012345v.jpg)
into a separate folder.